The turn of every season brings anticipation and excitement, along with a few important chores.
This is true for your home, your car, and your yard. You spring clean the house in April and change your oil every 3,000 miles, but what kind of regular maintenance do you perform on your lawn?
As the temperatures begin to drop and the first leaves start to fall, it’s time to give your grass a little TLC. Those dog days of summer were a blast, but all of that foot traffic can wreak havoc on your backyard, leading to unsightly and unhealthy soil compaction.
That’s where core aeration comes in.
The ideal way to reverse compaction, remove heavy thatch, and keep your lawn as healthy as possible, this is a go-to landscaping practice that can make your property the envy of the neighborhood.
Today, we’re taking a deep dive into the core aeration process, sharing what it includes, why it’s important and how you can schedule the service for your home.
Ready to learn more? Let’s dive in!
Why Aerate Your Lawn?
Regardless of your geographic location or soil type, your yard can look lush and healthy all year long. The key is to give it ample opportunity to absorb all the valuable microorganisms that can help get it there. If you’re already mowing, fertilizing and watering your grass, aerating is a natural next step.
When you aerate your lawn, you help ensure that the soil beneath it is able to accept important nutrients that can help it thrive. You do so by perforating the soil with small holes that allow those nutrients to travel deeper into the ground and impact the grass roots.
This lawn care step is especially important if you deal with cumbersome thatch. Not sure if you have it? Take a closer look at your lawn.
Thatch is a tight, interwoven mass of stems, roots, and leaves (both living and dead), that accumulates in a thick layer between your actively growing grass and the soil beneath it. A small amount of thatch (no more than 1/2-inch thick) can benefit your yard, increasing its resiliency to foot traffic. Left untreated, however, it can block your grass roots from receiving important nutrients.
What happens when water, air and other resources can’t permeate down into the soil? Those grass roots starve and become susceptible to damage and disease, leading to a dull and lifeless yard.
Useful Core Aeration Terms
As we dive into the topic of core aeration, there are a few terms you’ll notice appearing more often than others. These definitions relate to the process and it’s important to understand them before moving forward. Let’s take a look!
Compaction is a yard condition that occurs mostly in the top 1 to 1.5 inches of your soil. Like flour does when you’re baking, soil can become compacted when enough pressure pushes it down. Heavy equipment, foot traffic and even hard rains can compact your soil over time.
If your yard becomes compacted, the soil has reduced air spaces and becomes resistant to root growth. Some of the signs to look out for include:
- Water puddling in your lawn’s low areas
- Water quickly running away from your lawn’s high areas
- Trees that have shallow roots
- Thinning, patchy areas of grass
- Bare areas of dirt where grass or weeds won’t grow
- Heavy clay soil
- Hard soil that even a shovel can’t pierce
This is the process of removing small plugs of soil and thatch from your yard to encourage more air, water, and nutrients to enter into your root and soil system.
As described, thatch is a layer of plant tissue and organic matter that lies between the green vegetation of your grass and the soil system underneath. It’s mainly comprised of decayed stems, stolons, rhizomes, and roots. While other components of your grass decay more easily, these elements take a longer time, and can accumulate into an unaesthetic and damaging mass in the process.
Under 1/2-inch thick, thatch serves to insulate your soil and helps it hold in moisture. Above that level, however, it impedes it from doing the exact same thing. Roots tend to grow in the thatch (not the soil) and weaken in times of drought or excess cold. In addition, thick thatch can house pests and diseases, as well as make your pesticide efforts less effective.
In cases of heavy thatch, some homeowners will choose to remove the thatch layer from their turfgrass using a mechanical power rake or dethatching unit.
This removes the layer of dead and decaying grass and plant matter located between the green vegetation and the underlying soil surface. A power rake uses rigid wire tines or steel blades to slice through the turf, lifting the thatch up to the surface for removal.
Though this is one method of thatch control, it can damage your turf it you don’t perform it correctly. Especially if you only have 1/2-inch or less of thatch, core aeration provides a quicker, safer and more effective method of removing it and preventing it from growing back.
Yard Conditions Core Aeration Helps Treat
You know the logic behind the process, but how can you tell if your property needs lawn aeration services? Though every yard is different, there are a few common environmental characteristics that can lead to a compromised root system. Let’s take a look at a few.
Heavy Yard Use
Your backyard is meant to be enjoyed! You shouldn’t think twice about playing tackle football on it, hosting barbecues, or letting your pets roll around in the grass.
However, all of that traffic can compact your grass over time, which can limit the amount of nutrients its roots receive.
A New Yard
Did you establish your yard from scratch as part of a new construction build? If so, it’s likely that the topsoil around your property became stripped or buried during the excavation of the basement or footings. This might be more noticeable in the areas right beside your house.
If this occurred, it forced your new grass to grow on compromised subsoil that is more compact, higher in clay content and less capable of sustaining a healthy lawn.
A Clay Soil Yard
Do you live in a region where your yard and garden grow in clay soil rather than sandy soil? Proportions of clay, silt and sand differ across the United States. In addition to those basic elements, your soil also contains different amounts of rock fragments, roots, live organisms, oxygen and water than a neighboring region’s might.
Soils with heavy clay contents tend to compact more easily and leave less room for roots to absorb nutrients. Your yard might benefit from more frequent aeration if this is the case.
A Dry, Thatchy Yard
Have you started to notice that your yard stays brown, no matter how much you water it or how much rain your region gets? A dry yard that has a spongy feel has likely fallen victim to thatch.
To find out for yourself, take a shovel and remove a small slice of dirt from your lawn, around four inches deep. If you see that the thatch layer permeates deeper than 1/4 of an inch, it’s time to aerate.
A Sod-Established Yard
If you established your yard from sod, there’s a good chance that soil layering is occurring on your property. This means that the finer-textured soil that gives sod its characteristic look and feel is now sitting on top of existing, coase soil.
This layering makes drainage next to impossible, as the finer-textured soil retains most of the water. As time goes on, this leads to soil compaction and stunts root development. When you aerate, you encourage that layering to break apart so water can flow through the soil easier.
What is Core Aeration?
Before we delve into its features and benefits, let’s review what core aeration entails.
This is a type of lawn aeration that uses a machine called a core aerator. The aerator is equipped with hollow tines that work to mechanically remove plugs of soil and thatch from your lawn. Most machines create holes that are two to three inches deep, 0.5 to 0.75 inches in diameter, and about two to three inches apart.
Freeing these plugs, also called “coils”, gives your yard a chance to breathe. It reduces soil compaction and loosens up the dirt, creating a new channel through your soil that allows water, oxygen, fertilizer, pesticides, and other nutrients to more deeply penetrate into it.
The soil that’s removed then spreads across the surface of your yard to topdress your lawn. Breaking up and redistributing the soil in this way helps promote healthier and more effective root growth.
Another benefit of this process? If you have thatch in your yard, the redistributed soil can combine with its debris during aeration. When this happens, the soil organisms can help break down the thatch and limit its accumulation.
Benefits of Core Aeration
If you’re ready to improve the look of your lawn, make it more resilient and disease-resistant, and reduce your maintenance requirements, core aeration can make a world of difference.
Why aerate lawns? Some of the benefits you can expect include:
- Improved air exchange between the atmosphere and your soil
- Improved soil water uptake
- Improved fertilizer uptake and application
- Improved stress tolerance during excess heat and drought
- Improved cushioning and resiliency
- Less water runoff and puddling
- Less soil compaction
- Stronger and more durable turfgrass roots
- Better thatch breakdown
Your root zone is the heart and home of your yard, and when you open it up to key nutrients, you can notice a visible difference. Next, let’s review the physical changes your yard will display after core aeration.
What to Expect
Before you invest in lawn aeration services, it’s important to know what changes they will create in your yard. While the overall benefits of this application are undeniable, they can temporarily alter the physical look of your lawn. Here’s what to expect.
Immediately After Aeration
Right after the core aeration process, you’ll notice that your lawn is dotted with small plugs that the aerator machine pulled from your soil.
Seven to 10 Days After Aeration
About one week after aeration, the aerification holes that the core aerator created will begin to display white, actively growing roots. This is a visible and rewarding sign that your turfgrass is drawing more oxygen, water and nutrients from the soil.
Within One to Two Weeks of Aeration
In one or two weeks, the plugs of dirt will break apart and disintegrate into your lawn, where they’ll help improve soil quality and content.
Short-Term and Long-Term Improvements
If your soil is very compacted or your lawn is on a slope, you might have noticed a problem with puddling and compromised runoff. Right after aeration, you’ll see that these issues are less obvious after irrigation or rainfall.
Over time, no matter the type or location of your yard, you’ll realize that you can go longer between waterings, and that your grass is more resilient to wilting. As you aerate your yard year after year, its tolerance to heat, drought, and pests will only improve.
Why Equipment Matters
If you understand the basic technique behind core aeration, it doesn’t matter what kind of machine you use, right?
Not so fast.
Equipment type plays a major role in the successful outcome of your aeration project, as does applicator expertise. Sub-par tools and techniques can render the application ineffective and could even damage your yard. That’s why it’s smart to hire a lawn care professional to take the reins rather than tackle this homeowner chore yourself.
In most cases, turf responds best when the core holes are deep and close together. A professional can guide you on which kind of method and machine is best suited for your property. When the aeration process is complete, remember to water your lawn, especially if you live in areas where droughts and high temperatures are common.
Other Forms of Aeration
Diligent homeowners know that aerating your lawn is a must-do step to keep it green, vibrant, and plush. Yet, core aeration isn’t the only way to do so. Let’s take a quick look at the other types of aeration to compare the methods.
Liquid aeration is an increasingly popular aeration method that’s gaining steam thanks to technological innovation. A diversion from mechanical approaches, this technique doesn’t create holes in your yard.
Rather, it uses a spray-on soil amendment that encourage smaller soil particles to clump into larger ones, making microscopic pores in the ground. These holes act like sponges, helping the soil more readily accept and retain water. If you water your lawn on a regular basis, this can make your efforts more efficient and help you save money on your water bill!
A benefit of liquid aeration is that it’s able to reach your entire lawn, as opposed to traditional aerator machines, which only permeate every few inches.
At Abracadabra Pest and Weed Control, we leverage a unique soil amendment called SoilTech to perform our liquid aeration services. This is an environmentally-friendly liquid compaction relief product that provides the following benefits:
- Helps your yard stay greener
- Improves water retention
- Encourages a stronger root system
- Helps your yard thrive through droughts
This spray-on application is a mainstay on golf courses and sports fields, and is now available for homeowner use.
As its name implies, spike aeration requires using a small spike to create holes in your yard. Unlike core aeration, you won’t pull up any cores of soil during this process. Instead, the spikes push the soil deeper into the ground.
Though it can be beneficial in some cases, this type of aeration is best suited for lawns that aren’t suffering from thatch or compaction. Some homeowners prefer to use spike aeration prior to overseeding or applying a layer of fertilizer to their lawn, as the holes help provide clearer access to the grass’ root system.
How Often to Core Aerate Your Yard
While you’re scheduling the remainder of your annual home maintenance, go ahead and put core aeration on the list, too. Most properties only need this application once a year.
If you use your yard more heavily than most, you can aerate it twice a year. The same goes if your yard grows on heavy clay soil or subsoil. Of course, if you own or maintain a grassy area that sees an excessive amount of foot traffic, you can even aerate it three to five times a year as required. These areas include:
- Golf fairways
- Municipality common areas
- Sports turfs
When to Core Aerate Your Yard
Successful core aeration requires careful timing. Wondering when to aerate lawns? It all depends on the type of grass you’re growing.
Is yours a cool-season turfgrass, such as Kentucky bluegrass or perennial ryegrass? If so, you can aerate in either the fall or spring, avoiding times of excessive heat and frost.
If you choose to aerate in the spring, focus your efforts during the months of March to May. In the fall, aerate between August and November. If you go this route, the most important consideration is to aerate before or during the time of late-season fertilization. If you do so, you’ll promote stronger root growth and prepare your lawn for spring growth and greenup.
On the other hand, does your yard consist of warm-season turfgrass, such as zoysiagrass or bermudagrass? Aerate these grasses in mid-spring to summer, as you want to give the yard time to awaken from dormancy. If you core aerate warm-season grass in cooler temperatures, when it’s dormant, you could encourage weed competition.
For best results, give your grass time to awaken during spring warmup, and wait until after your first spring mowing to aerate. Not sure what kind of grass you’re dealing with? This handy guide can help you identify the different types.
Timing Chemical Applications with Core Aeration
Planning to apply a pre-emergent herbicide to your lawn? If so, it’s best to core aerate your yard before you do so. If you wait and aerate after you apply the herbicide, you could reduce the chemical barrier that the herbicide forms. This could break it down, make it less effective and allow weeds to germinate.
The opposite holds true if you want to fertilize your lawn. In this case, wait until after you aerate to apply the fertilizer. This strengthens its defense against weeds and allows the fertilizer to penetrate deeper into the soil.
Leave Your Yard in the Hands of an Expert
Are you tired of looking at a patchy, dry yard while your neighbors relish their thick, lush one right next door? There isn’t a top-secret potion or expensive, time-consuming process to undertake. Your lawn can look equally green, healthy and vibrant all year long, and the answer is core aeration.
Your yard won’t suffer in silence. Chances are, it’s giving you plenty of signs that it needs attention. If it’s overrun with thatch, pooling with water or harder than cement to break up, it’s time to let a lawn care specialist transform it.
That’s where we come in.
We’re a team of lawn pest and weed control experts serving the Dallas-Fort Worth area since 2005. All of our team members receive personal training to ensure they’re knowledgeable, skilled and up-to-date on the latest technologies that can turn your yard from dull to dynamic.
From core aeration to fertilization, shrub care and disease eradication, we do it all, and we do it right. Contact us today for a free quote and let’s connect.